india vs pakistan, As a nation of roughly 1.3 billion people, India and Pakistan have a history of being at each other’s throats for centuries. The two Muslim-majority nations are separated by more than the width of a finger, but their rulers have been at each other’s throats since the time of the Mughal empire back in the 15th century.
In 1948, Pakistan gained independence from India. Since then, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Pakistani and Indian troops, most notably the 1965 war (when Pakistani troops were supported by Western powers to repel an Indian invasion).
The conflict has been accompanied by insurgencies across both countries, in which thousands of people have died and millions more displaced.
The two states are also divided by religion – 90% of Pakistanis are Muslim while over 80% of Indians are Hindu.
All this means that India and Pakistan have very different priorities when it comes to foreign policy and development assistance. And both governments seem rather reluctant to discuss these issues openly with other nations (despite being part of UN agencies such as UNDP).
Rather than focusing on how they can work together with other nations on development in order to create wealth and prosperity for their respective peoples, they prefer to focus almost entirely on their differences with one another – especially when it comes to giving aid or loans. This is not surprising – because if you think about it, there is only one thing that unites them as a country: their religion (which makes them appear as one united nation when we only look at them through our cultural lenses). But there are also many things that divide them – including their historical grievances against one another and their very different priorities when it comes to foreign policy and development assistance (with respect to economic matters).
2. India vs Pakistan: A Historical Look
In the last few months, there has been a lot of attention paid to India and Pakistan. There are all kinds of reasons for this — the Indian media is more overt in its pro-Pakistan rhetoric, while the Pakistani media is more critical; there have been lawsuits between the two countries, and so on. This has caused a lot of confusion.
In India, you often hear that Pakistan was created by India via Partition; and some people will argue (as I have) that this is false. However, this is not true in either case:
(i) In 1947, India did not exist as an independent country. The British left it through the partitioning of their empire in 1947; they never created Pakistan from anything (it was never a state). The idea that British rule over the Indian subcontinent led to Pakistan and vice versa will be explained below;
(ii) In 1947, both countries were part of what was known as the Vilayat-i-Azam (Provincial Administration), which was set up by The Governor-General of British India to administer parts of what would eventually become Pakistan and what would eventually become India (and which did not include any territory belonging to either country). A good summary can be found here ).
Having covered these two major points, let’s go back to where we started:
(i) What makes me think that India vs Pakistan is going to be a significant story?
The answer depends on your viewpoint: if you are a Pakistani national living in India (or vice versa), then you probably believe that your life really is better than it could be because you live in an independent country with a functioning government instead of being marginalized by an unstable nation-state. If you are a non-Pakistani living in Pakistan but felt lucky enough not to have had to flee — or worse yet — endure war — then maybe your life isn’t worth anything at all. But we are talking about Indian citizens who moved here because it was better than what they were used to back home. One way or another, this will affect how people perceive India vs Pakistan. We’re dealing with relative comparisons here. For example: if someone tells me “Pakistan sucks!” I may or may not agree with them but I certainly don’t agree with them enough to call them “uneducated morons” or “useless thieves” or
3. India vs Pakistan: A Modern Comparison
India and Pakistan are two of the most important nations in the world. They share a long border, but there is a stark difference in their economic circumstances. In India, one billion people are living in absolute poverty; more than 1.5 million people die every year from it. In Pakistan, 1.7 million people died last year due to war and terror alone, according to the UN. The two countries have recently made headlines as they have entered into a free trade agreement which will give both countries access to each other’s markets: they will be able to buy and sell goods between each other and sell products onto each other’s marketplaces (though this rule is not new: the agreement was first a part of the 1998 Bilateral Investment Treaty).
The strategic importance of these deals is obvious: if India and Pakistan will be able to buy and sell with each other, India may no longer be dependent on either China or Russia for energy supplies — something that would otherwise cut into its economic growth. The deal is so important that it has also been debated (and debated) on an international level: as recently as this week India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that he had “no choice but to sign…the agreement with Pakistan…the signing of this agreement means that we have given up our independence”
The Indian economy relies heavily on imports from China (which has 1/4th of India’s GDP), so without access to the Chinese market, there would be huge pressure on its own economy. The Pakistani economy depends heavily on imports from Russia, which holds more than 70% of its exports (and most of its oil), so having access to Russian markets could also help offset some of this pressure.
This deal is bound to have major implications for both countries: if India grows at 8%, then it may feel no need for access to the Pakistani market, while at the same time if Pakistan grows at 8% then it may feel no need for access to the Indian market — both economies would benefit by having access industry-to-industry trade; however, this is not guaranteed as there are many scenarios where either country could grow at rates lower than 8%. It all depends on how much trade each country actually wants with another country: currently, it seems like India does not want much (but has no reason NOT to want more), while Pakistan does want most (but doesn’t really HAVE any reason NOT to want more).
4. India vs Pakistan: Economic Comparisons
There’s an old saying: if one can’t beat them, join them. Unfortunately, this is a little more complicated than that.
The problem with “join them” is that it is not a simple or even an easy process. First of all, it requires a deep understanding of the products in question; secondly, it requires a thorough knowledge of the local context (the companies and markets they comprise within); thirdly, and crucially, it requires an unshakeable belief in the potential of your product and its potential to change the minds of people in those markets (which is always difficult).
As such there are many arguments for why one should not enter into relationships with competitors in their vicinity. India vs Pakistan talks about economic coordination between India and Pakistan, but there are also many reasons why one should enter into economic relationships with other countries outside India or Pakistan.
In this post, I will briefly discuss some of these arguments from my own perspective and make some general comments on the topic from a broader perspective.
First, we have to understand what differences we have as compared to India vs Pakistan: after all, we are both countries that are geographically close to each other (although some parts of the region are far away from each other). We have broadly similar cultures and values, although our systems and business models do differ quite significantly in terms of ownership structure (e.g., Indian companies tend to be majority-owned by government-owned entities while Pakistani companies tend to be majority-owned by individuals). We also have much less common ground on human rights issues than India vs Pakistan; this has been discussed here. Finally, our geographic proximity has meant that some common products (e.g., nutrition) were available before they were available anywhere else in the world; now they can be accessed across all corners of the world through global trade networks including eCommerce platforms such as Amazon (which means that there is much greater opportunity for cross-border commerce than ever before).
So what similarities do we share? The most obvious difference between us is our geography: both countries share a large portion of their borders with other countries – China, Afghanistan, Iran, etc – which means they often share borders with regions where most people speak multiple languages – China, Afghanistan, etc – which makes communication very easy between people who live across borders — China, Afghanistan, etc — which makes the creation and distribution of products easier -and thus opens up opportunities for cross-border commerce — China, Afghanistan,
5. India vs Pakistan: Social Comparisons
One of the most popular topics on the social media circuit is whether India or Pakistan is better.
It’s a hot topic, and it’s a good one; however, it has problems.
First, Indian people are going to be annoyed. They have no monopoly on being right about which country has been better than the other.
Second, there are certain country-specific analogies we shouldn’t make: for example, India and Pakistan are not ‘same thing as USA/Canada.’
And third, there’s no room in our discussion for inter-national comparisons like “India vs France vs the USA vs the UK vs Germany vs China vs Japan vs Russia vs Brazil…etc..etc.. etc.. etc..” The only comparisons that can really be made are those that require multiple points of comparison – like “India v Pakistan…and others…etc..etc…etc.. etc.. etc..”
In the last few months or so, I have seen a lot of discussion about India vs. Pakistan, and whether it is good for both sides to be in conflict.
I have always been agnostic about the issue; I don’t feel strongly one way or the other. My own view is that there are countless reasons for people to hate each other, but when it comes down to it, what does any of this matter?
We’ve had some interesting arguments on Twitter and other places in regard to this topic (I’m not even going to bother with all that); but as someone who has a little personal stake in either side, I am more interested in the positives and negatives of this game than I am in making a judgment call.
One thing that has come out of my own personal experience is something that seems like a foregone conclusion: when you look at something from different perspectives, you get different results — and you can use that to your advantage.
To spread awareness about the issue, I would like to turn my attention towards two individuals who live on opposite ends of the spectrum:
Tina Belcher & Jacinda Ardern
The world will never stop being played by these two women; they are living proof we can create wonderful things from a very small place. And their stories show us how important it is for us to focus on what matters (and not so much about what we think we should do).
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